Television is the most popular medium. Major national commercial networks compete with state-owned Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI).
The radio dial is crowded, with scores of stations in Jakarta alone. In line with global trends, print newspaper circulations are falling.
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) says there are “drastic” restrictions on media access to the troubled province of West Papua. More generally, it says many journalists self-censor because of the threat from laws on blasphemy and online libel.
There were 212 million internet users by July 2022, comprising 76% of the population (Internetworldstats.com). Facebook, Instagram and Twitter are popular social media platforms.
The authorities can resort to blocking online content deemed to break the law or violate social norms, says Freedom House.